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RMT career in massage therapy

Train for a Career in Massage Therapy and Begin a Successful, Rewarding Career

A career in massage therapy can change your entire life. If you’ve ever felt trapped in a dead-end job, wishing you could work in a real career where you could help others, be paid well, and work flexible hours, becoming an RMT could be the ideal career for you. At MH Vicars, our industry-recognized two-year program can provide you the confidence and knowledge needed to build a reliable, truly satisfying career.

Here are nine reasons why a career in massage therapy just might be the career you’ve always been looking for.

  1. Graduate with the skills needed to start practicing right awayRMT career in massage therapy

With training from MH Vicars, you’ll graduate with the experience and high level of skills you need to start working immediately. You’ll have spent two years working with some of the best massage educators and RMTs in the province and gaining real experience in our massage clinic. With hundreds of hours of hands-on experience in the classroom and at our supervised student clinics, you’ll have the confidence and knowledge to enter the profession and start right away. In many provinces, you can even start working part time as a student while you’re in your second year of the program.

  1. Make a difference in others’ lives

When you know that what you’re doing is making a positive difference in the world, you’ll always be excited to get up for work in the morning.  Being a massage therapist can provide you with a great sense of purpose, since you’ll spend your days helping to make others feel better. By promoting relaxation, reducing muscle tension and pain, and even treating specific medical conditions that affect your client’s quality of life, you can help your clients live their best lives.

“Even after a busy day, I leave work really happy because I know that I’m helping so many people. I also learned so much about myself while I was at MH Vicars. Between when I started school and when I finished, I gained so much more confidence: not only in my work, but in myself.”

Emma Johannesson, 2017 graduate

Whether your clients are looking for relief from physical pain, emotional ailments like anxiety, stress, or low energy levels, you’ll be able to help them using your comprehensive training and knowledge.

  1. Become a licensed health care professional

As an RMT, you’ll experience the real sense of pride that comes with being a recognized health care professional. MH Vicars School is an MTAA Approved Program and our thoughtfully designed curriculum meets the highest Canadian massage therapy education standards. This means that after graduation, you’ll be a trusted practitioner with the skills and knowledge to work anywhere in Canada.

If you live in Alberta, Saskatchewan, or the Territories,  you’ll be able to become a valued member of one of your local professional associations, like the Massage Therapists Association of Alberta or the Natural Health Practitioners of Canada, right away. If you live in a regulated province like BC, you’ll be able to apply to take the exams set by their regulatory College.

You’ll also get to develop a strong network of like-minded colleagues in other medical and wellness professions. Even when you’ve already landed a great job or opened your own business, this network will help you build your practice, develop your skills, and provide well-rounded care for your clients.

  1.  Be your own boss

According to Statistics Canada, 62% of massage therapists are self-employed. (That number is even higher for MH Vicars graduates: 66% of our 2020 graduates work for themselves).

As part of our extensive curriculum, we explore all aspects of opening your own business. If you choose this path, you’ll be ready to dive into the world of entrepreneurship and create total career flexibility. Work for yourself, set your own hours, and enjoy the lifestyle you’ve always wanted. You can work full time, part time or casual hours — whichever you prefer.

You can even work from home or as a mobile massage therapist and go to your clients. The possibilities are endless. With your comprehensive training from MH Vicars, you’ll be able to realize your dream of leaving the 9-5 behind, set your own schedule, and be your own boss.

  1. Massage therapy is a respected and valued profession

We often joke that massage therapists are the only health care professionals that people actually look forward to spending an hour with! Your clients will come to your clinic excited for their appointment, and they’ll leave feeling calm, happy, and in less pain. You’ll get the professional satisfaction of knowing that you’re improving their health and quality of life, and the personal enjoyment that comes from working with happy and enthusiastic clients.

Gone are the days when getting a massage was a treat reserved for a Mother’s Day pampering session or the only enjoyable part of an otherwise painful physiotherapy appointment. Today, clients from all walks of life seek out RMTs who have extensive therapeutic training, for everything from reducing stress and anxiety to treating TMJD and fibromyalgia. The two years of training at MH Vicars covers everything from anatomy to treatment planning to ethics, with hundreds of hours of hands-on training in class and at the supervised practicum clinic.

  1. You can combine your passions to build your dream career

Massage therapy is an extremely flexible career – and we don’t just mean the work hours. With a well-rounded massage therapy education, you can build a career that reflects your interests.

Once you’re an RMT, you will keep learning in order to keep up with the latest research and techniques. You can add to your RMT skills by learning related modalities and treatments, like cupping or advanced manual lymphatic draining techniques.

But your career options aren’t limited to just hands-on treatments. Massage is a wonderful career upgrade for personal trainers, yoga teachers, and anyone else who already works with the body. There are so many ways to combine your skills and passions under one roof!

  1. Massage therapists are always in demand

From runners to ranchers to teachers, more and more people are relying on massage therapists to keep their bodies working at their peak. The profession has shown steady growth in the past two decades, with no signs of slowing down. At the same time, massage therapy benefits have become a standard feature in most health care plans. So while demand for well-trained RMTs has increased, regular massage treatments have become more accessible.

This means that there are many opportunities for massage therapists to work in many different settings, including chiropractic clinics, rehab clinics, fitness centres and even in mobile settings.

“When I applied for jobs after graduation, I got several phone calls from employers just because they liked that I went to MH Vicars. Graduates have a good reputation among clients, and with other therapists. I am proud to be a MH Vicars graduate. Thank you!”

Ryan Kim, 2018 graduate

  1. Work locally or globally

Do you want to work halfway around the world, or do you want to count your commute in steps rather than kilometres? No matter your preference, massage therapy can take you there.

Massage therapists are as essential in small rural communities as they are in big cities. Because wherever there are people who are stressed and sore, there will be a need for massage therapists. With the right massage education, you’re able to set up shop in your own neighbourhood or in another country. RMTs can choose to work in clinics, from their own homes, in resorts, spas, and everywhere in between.

  1. Say goodbye to the desk job

We’ve all heard the experts say that sitting is the new smoking. The typical desk job would have you sitting more than seven hours a day. Multiply that by five days a week, and that’s a lot of inactivity.

Once you’re a massage therapist, the days of sitting hunched at a keyboard for hours on end will be behind you. Giving a massage engages all of the muscle groups in your body. Since massage therapy is a very physical job, we’ll teach you the proper body mechanics and self-care methods for this hands-on career. This will keep your body healthy and strong as you provide care to others.

 

Massage Therapy is a truly rewarding and valued career. At MH Vicars, we’re proud to offer the highest quality education in massage, while offering small class sizes so students receive plenty of one-on-one attention and education. Recognized by industry experts, we meet the national standards for massage therapy education, and are dedicated to the success of our students. Are you considering a career in massage therapy? Our admissions team would love to hear from you. Call 1-866-491-0574, send us an email, or learn more at a virtual open house.

At MH Vicars School, we often say that a massage therapy career can be whatever you want it to be. Carly Turner and Gwen Evans are a great example of this. Carly and Gwen were classmates at Vicars, and graduated in 2018. They now work together at Theralleve Therapeutic Massage and Wellness Clinic in Calgary, which Carly owns. Both Carly and Gwen offer a wide range of therapeutic massage treatments, but what really makes their clinic stand out is how clearly the two of them have been able to develop and communicate their professional philosophies. They both have a very clear idea of what kind of massage therapists they want to be. This important because it not only motivates them, but helps them find and retain clients who share the same goals.

Our Edmonton Director Robin Collum recently had the opportunity to talk with Carly and Gwen, and they were having such a good time that they couldn’t bear to cut it short! So we’ve broken the conversation into two parts.

Part 2, the three of us talked about the business of massage, opening your own clinic during a pandemic, and they offered some wise words to current and future Vicars students! Watch the video of our conversation, or read it below.

Robin

Carly, you’re the owner of Theralleve Calgary. Can you tell us a little bit about the clinic?

Carly

We’re relatively new: we opened in February 2020.

Robin

Oh, good timing!

Carly

Yeah, perfect timing! It was like, “Oh, the economy’s kind of bad…let’s just add in a pandemic!”

So we did end up closing for a little bit, but we reopened our doors in July and we’ve been going ever since. And it’s been a really amazing, interesting, big experience for me especially.

It’s something that has always been on my radar as something I wanted to do, and there was an opportunity in 2019 to kind of get things going and open up a clinic.

Gwen and I had gone to school together and created a really strong friendship, and we were just kind of like, “You know, let’s take this and run with it.”

And now here we are.

Robin

Had you planned on opening your own clinic back when you were in school? Did you always have dreams of being an entrepreneur as well as an RMT?

Carly

With our school curriculum, we had the added bonus of doing that business assignment, where it’s essentially plotting out how you would open a business. I remember that mine was very specific to cancer-related massage. But I had definitely thought of it as a “five years later” kind of plan.

So this kind of came a little bit sooner than expected, I would say.

But I’ve always had a very big entrepreneurial spirit. So taking something on like this, knowing that I interact very well with other people, I kind of rallied up that response of “What do we need to do?” and doing the research and the planning behind it…I’m certainly not afraid of that kind of hard work.

It was taking advantage of an opportunity mixed with, “Ok, well, if we’re going to do this, we’re going to do it!”

That’s why it’s been such an experience, because it wasn’t something for me that was necessarily planned so soon. But, you know, here I am doing it!

Robin

It sounds like it’s been a baptism by fire.

Carly

Kind of, yeah. But it’s been great. And I’ve had such wonderful people surrounding me and supporting me, including Gwen. I can only really be as good as my team and my team is pretty awesome!

Robin

Do you have any wisdom or advice to share with anyone who might be considering a career massage therapy?

Gwen

It is very much a “You get what you give” career. If you don’t put any work into it, you’re not going to get a lot of out of it. And it’s not the easiest one, but it is probably one of the most rewarding. So stick with it, get through it. The curriculum is worth it.

And just be ready to be a bit self-starting. Even if you’re working under an employee contract instead of being an independent contractor, you’re still going to have to try and reach out and prospect for those clients. So just be ready to do that a bit too.

Robin

Anything to add to that, Carly?

Carly

So succinct!

Gwen knows this, because as I said we were first year together, but I cried a lot in first year. I was frustrated. I just was like, “I don’t get this. I’m not sure I’m getting it properly.” Because there’s just so many nuances involved with massage. Nobody’s going to tell you “This is the exact pressure you need” or “That’s the exact symptom that’s going to correlate to that exact cause and effect,” and everything else.

I definitely agree with Gwen that you get what you give. Because there’s going to be a lot of challenge in it, in terms of just making sure that you are putting in the time and that you’re trying to study all of those muscle groups, and you are trying to learn what is out there, and what is being given to you.

And I mean, at MH Vicars, you’ll have amazing, amazing teachers. So that really helped.

I was just actually telling Gwen recently, it’s amazing how much has stuck and how much has deepened in our knowledge base for what we’re working with, each time we massage.

So, I mean, yes, you have to be personable in order to be a massage therapist. That’s kind of a given, but it’s amazing how much you can really learn and then eventually you can just trust the process.

And then as you’re working, you know, you might not remember all the Latin origins and insertions, but you know what you’re working on. And you know how to affect that muscle and what you can do about it if something happens. And that’s the beauty of it! Just acknowledging that you will get there.

Don’t forget to check out Part 1 of our conversation, in which Carly and Gwen talked about their approaches to massage therapy.

At MH Vicars School, we often say that a massage therapy career can be whatever you want it to be. Carly Turner and Gwen Evans are a great example of this. Carly and Gwen were classmates at Vicars, and graduated in 2018. They now work together at Theralleve Therapeutic Massage and Wellness Clinic in Calgary, which Carly owns. Both Carly and Gwen offer a wide range of therapeutic massage treatments, but what really makes their clinic stand out is how clearly the two of them have been able to develop and communicate their professional philosophies. They both have a very clear idea of what kind of massage therapists they want to be. This important because it not only motivates them, but helps them find clients who share the same goals.

Our Edmonton Director Robin Collum recently had the opportunity to talk with Carly and Gwen, and they were having such a good time that they couldn’t bear to cut it short! So we’ve broken the conversation into two parts.

In Part 1, the three of us talked about the approach they take to practicing massage therapy. Watch the video of our conversation, or read it below.

Robin

Carly, I’ll start with you. Can you tell us a little bit about your treatment philosophy?

Carly

Well, I think that for so long, there’s been a reputation around massage that it’s is strictly to help somebody feel good for an hour. That it’s just going to feel really relaxed, you’re not really going to get into anything major. You know, that the client is there just to calm down and sleep. But it’s so much more! If people come in and they have an injury, or if they have some sort of pain, we really want to get to the core of that pain. This is where our training in orthopedic testing can come in, and the overall assessment.

I’m very big on asking very specific questions. And although I definitely have some intuitive spots to my massage, I’m definitely very, very technical in my approach. And that really informs the questions that I’m going to ask, how I’m going to treat the muscle group. I say, “OK, how can we educate the client?”

I want to help them know more about what their pain is, and then be able to empower them further by giving them home care, by giving them the ability to really connect the dots so that it isn’t so passive.

We want to make things more two-sided. It’s not the therapist saying “I know all.” At the end of the day, you know your body as a client. And if I can help you understand it better by what I’m also noticing, then we create that better relationship for your health going forward.

Robin

Same question for you, Gwen. Can you tell me a little bit about your approach to massage therapy, and what kind of practice you’re trying to build?

Gwen

It’s actually very, very close to how Carly approaches it. We were classmates in first year, so we got a lot of that together. But there is there’s a couple of things where my approach is a little bit different. Whereas Carly is definitely very much about education—and I am too—I’m also very much about mindfulness of the stuff that people deal with mentally.

And obviously we stay within our scope of practice. But I have a lot of clients who deal with anxiety and body or gender dysmorphia and things like that. So my focus to that is ensuring that they constantly feel safe and that they can trust me to give them an effective treatment based on how they’re experiencing things, because not everybody experiences things the same way.

I work a lot with the LGBTQ+ community, and I also work a lot with clients who have a history of trauma as well as just increased generalized or social anxiety. And I live with a lot of that stuff personally. So for me, it’s really easy to translate that into massage—without exceeding my scope, obviously.

So for example, a client with trauma might have issues with having their neck worked on. So it’s a simple question of knowing to ask “Are you comfortable with this?”

With the LGBTQ community, body and gender dysphoria are huge things. So body neutrality is kind of the approach that I take with that. With generalized anxiety, it’s a lot more checking in. And the biggest thing that connects all of that is something that we learned in school—thank you, Courtney! —was explicit consent.

I’m really big on consent. Even with Carly, if we do a treatment for each other, if I’m working on the glutes or other sensitive areas, I get her consent every single time without fail.

It’s very important to me to get it every single time, regardless of who I’m working with.

So this has helped me find a niche in the industry. Because I get a lot of people who have had—for lack of a better term—insensitive therapists. It’s simply just not knowing, more than anything. But taking that extra second to ask that important question of “Can I work on your neck?” or “Is there anything I need to be mindful of?” can make a huge impact for somebody with anxiety or touch related trauma issues.

Come back next week for Part 2!

“Looking back now, I’m definitely glad I went the Newfoundland route. It’s been a long process, but I’m finally there!”

That’s Jenna Kluthe, who graduated from MH Vicars School’s Edmonton campus in 2017. She was one of nearly a dozen Vicars grads who travelled to Newfoundland to write that province’s entry-to-practice exam with the final goal of becoming RMTs in BC. Jenna now practices in Nanaimo.

Tyler Shortridge, Karen Goforth, Jenna Kluthe, and their classmates celebrate together after writing the CMTNL exams. Photo courtesy Karen Goforth.

Jenna and her classmates chose Newfoundland because the process to apply for the exam was simpler, faster, and less expensive than going directly to BC. The College of Massage Therapists of Newfoundland and Labrador officially recognizes the Vicars program, while the BC College requires applicants to pay for a “prior learning assessment” before they can take their test. (Read more about why Vicars grads are choosing Newfoundland and New Brunswick here).

The journey to become RMTs in BC began in the spring of 2017.

“I was going to go the BC route, because I didn’t know anything about Newfoundland, but about a month before we graduated someone mentioned it and we were all curious,” said Tyler Shortridge, who lives in Cranbrook and attended the Calgary campus. “[CMTNL] were really good. They answered emails fast, they answered phone calls. It was easy to get the answers I needed, and the paperwork was simple. I think I waited two weeks to hear whether we were accepted to write the exam. They had no issues with our program.”

The Newfoundland entry-to-practice exam has two parts. The multiple-choice exam covers massage theory, ethics, and law, including regulations specific to Newfoundland. The practical exam, which consists of seven separate stations, evaluates the therapist’s academic knowledge, hands-on techniques, and problem-solving skills.

“It was a little bit intimidating,” said Jenna. “You walk into the room and there were two examiners, just sitting off to the side, and there’s the body. The examiners don’t say anything, they don’t acknowledge you, they don’t smile, they don’t do anything. You just walk in and do your thing.”

The College publishes a detailed outline of the exam structure and contents to help therapists prepare, and the Vicars grad felt that the exams were well-organized and fair.

“It was fairly straightforward. You just have to make sure that you’re confident in your answers,” said Karen Goforth, who lives and works in Creston, BC.

Nonetheless, they all felt very prepared.

“The hardest part was waiting for the results,” said Tyler. “I took the exam in August, and by the end of October I was registered in Newfoundland. The end of January is when I was able to work in BC as an RMT.”

All the time and effort was worth it.

“Being a massage therapist is awesome, I love it. I have the freedom to do whatever I want with my schedule, and I like helping people,” said Tyler. “You see a lot of different people, and it’s really nice to connect with them.”

If you’re a Vicars student or grad interested in more information about moving to a regulated province, please contact the school and we’d be happy to help.

On the surface, leaving a career as an intensive-care technician to study massage seems like a

 

complete left turn. But for Suzanne Belanger, who began studying at MH Vicars School after more than two decades working in hospitals, it felt like a natural step. She’s still working in a healing profession; only now, as an RMT, she is in the position of helping to prevent injuries and pain, as well as treating them. “I saw that the allopathic or Western model was lacking in empowering care and preventive care. It’s always treating symptoms, not causes,” Suzanne says. “But there are more and more people who are looking to take charge of their own health. I’m one of those people. My passion is treating people preventively and one-on-one.”

Katie Rees

A successful personal trainer and Pilates instructor, Katie worked closely with the human body

Katie Rees

Katie Rees

every day, but still wanted to know more. She chose MH Vicars School because of the strong anatomy portion of the curriculum. She hadn’t expected to change careers, though—until she got to class. “I wanted more in-depth knowledge to help me work with my clients and to be a better personal trainer,” she says. “I hadn’t planned on practicing massage, but I really fell in love with it.” Since graduating in 2006, Katie has worked as an RMT in a physiotherapy clinic and a doctor’s office. She now owns True2Form Therapeutic Massage & Wellness Clinic in Edmonton. As a student, Katie says she liked that MH Vicars School held its students to a high standard because it drove her to excel. Now that she’s an employer, she appreciates those standards even more because she can be confident that when she employs MH Vicars grads, she’s getting the best.

In 2011, Bree Skiba had been out of school for four years and was already head of a mini massage empire: her company Balance Massage had two Edmonton locations and had just opened a third in Kelowna. I interviewed her then about her experiences as a student, and her career so far.

Watch that video here:

It’s now six years later, and both Balance Massage and the school have grown and changed. After reconnecting at our recent Edmonton Networking Night, I took the opportunity to catch up with Bree.

“I’m still doing well!” she says. “We’re almost 10 years at our original location at Moksha Yoga West, so that’s super exciting. I have a lot of regular clients who have stuck with me through the years, even through when I had a baby and came back.

The two original Edmonton locations are still going strong, and a third clinic is opening this month within TNP Fitness Studio. Bree sold the Kelowna location a few years ago.

“I have 8 therapists now, and I’ll be looking to hire more in the next couple of months. I’ve had a couple therapists now who’ve been with me for quite a while, and I’ve had lots of Vicars grads come through my door,” she says. “I also have one Vicars student on staff right now.”

Her journey has not been without challenges, however. The industry has changed over the last decade, and she and her therapists have had to work hard to keep up.

“What I’ve noticed is the saturation of massage therapy companies in the Edmonton area,” Bree says. “There are a few very large big box companies coming out of the States that have made it harder for small business owners. Those big places, they underpay their therapists, and as a business owner who pays out a good percentage to my therapists, it’s really frustrating to see.”

To thrive with this increasing competition, Bree and her colleagues have had to get back to basics: providing consistent, high-quality treatments that her clients can count on.

“I think if you’re a good therapist, and you know what your clients want, they will always, always, always come back to you,” she says. “My bread and butter is my regular clientele. As long as they’re happy, I’m happy, because they stick around.”

And a decade in, Bree has no plans to slow down.

“I wouldn’t trade my job for the world. Being a massage therapist—I couldn’t imagine doing anything else. I’m a single mum of a four-year-old, and I can still spend a ton of time with him and take clients in the evenings. It’s just so versatile.”

To learn more about Bree, read her bio on Balance Massage here.

To learn more about Balance Massage, visit their website.

From new graduate to award-nominated small business owner in less than six months: it’s fair to say that Brenda Roy had a very good 2016. Brenda graduated from the MH Vicars Calgary campus last June, and opened her home-based clinic, Angelic Healing Hot Stone Massage in Brooks, Alberta. She specializes in therapeutic massage, hot stone, and lymphatic techniques. In October, she placed in the top 5 in three separate categories at the Brooks and District Chamber of Commerce Awards: Business of the Year (under 20 people), New Business of the Year, and the Business Professional Award.

Keep reading to learn what sets Brenda apart.

Why do you love what you do?Brenda Roy

I love working with people and I feel that I have given myself gift by going back to school to get the training that I needed.

What sets you apart as a therapist?

I have been told that my approach to my practice is quite unique, in the fact that the client’s don’t feel rushed during the treatment.  I feel that the because I am able to work an intuitive nature that the massage does not feel like routine for the client and targets their needs.

What challenges have you overcome in your career?

The biggest obstacle that I had to overcome is the fact that I had been battling depression for a number of years, as well as the fact that I entered the program at the age of 54. I went back to school knowing full well that if it I didn’t take the ‘bull by the horns’ so to speak, and push my way through, that my future would lie in the hands of someone else, doing a job I did not like and could not feel productive at.  The course at MH Vicars was one of the highlights of my life and it forced me back to the person that I remembered when I was younger.

What advice do you have for someone considering a career in massage?

Find your heart in your business, and enjoy what you learn in school as well as in your business, as you will learn way more from your clients than will every learn in school.  Take the time to enjoy life as you are trying to find your footing in the massage therapy world and don’t be afraid to learn something new.

To learn more about Brenda and to book an appointment, check out her business Facebook page.

The Vicars Grads at Work blog series shines the spotlight on MH Vicars School alumni through short profiles and extended features. If you or someone you know would like to be featured on our blog, please contact Robin Collum.

Thanks to her passion and ambition, Kerri Wagensveld’s career as a massage therapist has progressed very quickly. When she graduated from Vicars in 2014, she already knew that she wanted to specialize in sport massage. She is now a Canadian Sport Massage Therapist Association certification candidate and practices alongside renowned Canadian sport massage therapist Kip Petch and several fellow Vicars grads at the Active Life Centre in St Albert. She also teaches at the Vicars Edmonton campus.

Why did you choose massage therapy as a career?Kerri Wagensveld

I initially chose this career because I loved receiving massage and providing massage. I knew the benefits were there, and wanted to pursue this. I love sports and knew I would thoroughly enjoy a career in this field. Being able to assist this way is truly an honour and a privilege.

What do you enjoy about being an RMT?

Being able to assist athletes and clients with maintenance or recovery in their sport or at work or home, and providing self-care “tools” that will help them maximize their efforts to meet and exceed their goals.

What are you most proud of in your career so far?

I’m proud that people come back to see me and that they are continually reaching out for advice on what they’re dealing with.  I’m also so honored when people trust me to receive their first professional massage and leave feeling happy they came.

What self-care practices do you use to keep fit and healthy for your career?

I work out and run. Making sure I stay very mobile and strong enough to withstand the physical demands of massage therapy.  I also ensure that I go for massage at least once per month.

What sets you apart from other RMTs?

Intentionally staying engaged with my work and trying to give each client a treatment that is unique and suitable for them.  I love the work I’m in, and clients notice this. They want someone that doesn’t just give them the same routine massage that every other client receives.

What advice would you offer to someone considering a career in massage?

I’d tell them to talk to other practicing RMTs and to go visit a school to learn about the program and to view the curriculum. Write down your reasons for being interested as well as your expectations of the schooling experience and your career after graduation. Then compare it to what you learned from therapists and schools.

To learn more about Kerri and to book an appointment at the Active Life Centre, check out their website.

The Vicars Grads at Work blog series shines the spotlight on MH Vicars School alumni through short profiles and extended features. If you or someone you know would like to be featured on our blog, please contact Robin Collum.